As a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Spanish at the University of Virginia, I study the rise of black internationalism in Latin America, focusing specifically on how pan-Africanist ideals manifested in the literature of three countries whose racial discourse has been historically dominated by mestizaje ideology: Cuba, Brazil, and Mexico. My dissertation argues that cultural and political interchange between these countries--which was especially concentrated from the 1930s to the 50s--facilitated the development of subversive black subjectivities founded upon Latin America's membership in the African diaspora. These served as a counterdiscourse to mestizaje in their time and are relevant to us now as they invite us to re-examine the scholarship surrounding race and racial categories in Spanish-speaking and Lusophone America.